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PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (CITES-2)


Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (CITES-2)

Wolfe, 1991


The CITES-2 (2002) is the most recent version of the CITES, a 78-item clinician-administered scale developed to assess the effects of sexual abuse on youths between the ages of 8 and 16 years old. It is designed as a continuous measure to assess, but can be used to determine diagnostic status. Items are rated on a 3-point Likert scale (“not true”, “somewhat true”, “very true”). The CITES-R is comprised of 4 main scales and 11 subscales: (1) PTSD (Intrusive Thoughts, Avoidance, Hyperarousal, and Sexual Anxiety); (2) Social Reactions (Negative Reactions from Others and Social Support); (3) Abuse Attributions (Self-Blame and Guilt, Empowerment, Personal Vulnerability, and Dangerous World); and (4) Eroticism.

Sample Items

Some people believe that I did a very bad thing.
This happened to me because I acted in a way that caused it to happen.
I have difficulty concentrating because I often think about what happened.

0 = Not true
1 = Somewhat true
2 = Very true


In addition to the CITES-2, the 25-item CITES-Family Violence Form (CITES-FVF) assesses the effects of family violence on the child.


Wolfe, V. V., Gentile, C., Michienzi, T., Sas, L., Wolfe, D. A. (1991). The Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale: a measure of post-sexual abuse PTSD symptoms. Behavioral Assessment, 13, 359–383.

Additional Reviews

Ohan, J. L., Myers, K., Collett, B. R. (2002). Ten-year review of rating scales. IV: scales assessing trauma and its effects. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1401-22.

To Obtain Scale

Vicky V. Wolfe, PhD
Department of Psychology
London Health Sciences Center
London, Ontario, Canada N6A 4G5
Email: Vicky.Wolfe@LHSC.ON.CA

Measure availability: Information on measures is available to everyone. However, the assessment tools themselves can only be distributed to qualified mental health professionals and researchers. We maintain measures developed by affiliated staff of the National Center for PTSD.

Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page.

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Where to Get Help for PTSD

Using the PILOTS database for Assessment Information
The PILOTS database is the largest electronic index to the world's literature on traumatic stress.

The National Center for PTSD does not provide direct clinical care, individual referrals or benefits information.

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