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PTSD: National Center for PTSD


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Combat Experiences Scale



This section is for Researchers, Providers, & Helpers

Combat Experiences Scale

Scale in the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2
DRRI-2 Section: D
Survey Label: "Combat Experiences"


Exposure to combat-related circumstances such as firing a weapon, being fired on, being attacked or witnessing an attack (e.g., encountering an explosive device), encountering friendly fire, and going on special missions and patrols that involve such experiences. This war-zone factor refers to objective events and circumstances and does not include personal interpretations or subjective judgments of the events or circumstances.

Sample Items

  • I personally witnessed someone from my unit or an ally unit being seriously wounded or killed.
  • I was exposed to hostile incoming fire.
  • I was involved in locating or disarming explosive devices.

Response Format

6-point Likert (1 = Never; 6 = Daily or almost daily)

To Obtain Scale

See Assessment Measures Specifically for VA Providers and Staff to download the DRRI scales and manual.

For Non-VA Providers: please complete the online request form to obtain the DRRI-2.

Measure availability: We provide information on a variety of measures assessing trauma and PTSD. These measures are intended for use by qualified mental health professionals and researchers. Measures authored by National Center staff are available as direct downloads or by request. Measures developed outside of the National Center can be requested via contact information available on the information page for the specific measure.

Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page.

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Also see: VA Mental Health