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PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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Combat Experiences Scale


Combat Experiences Scale

Scale in the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2
DRRI-2 Section: D
Survey Label: "Combat Experiences"


Exposure to combat-related circumstances such as firing a weapon, being fired on, being attacked or witnessing an attack (e.g., encountering an explosive device), encountering friendly fire, and going on special missions and patrols that involve such experiences. This war-zone factor refers to objective events and circumstances and does not include personal interpretations or subjective judgments of the events or circumstances.

Sample Items

  • I personally witnessed someone from my unit or an ally unit being seriously wounded or killed.
  • I was exposed to hostile incoming fire.
  • I was involved in locating or disarming explosive devices.

Response Format

6-point Likert (1 = Never; 6 = Daily or almost daily)

Measure availability: Information on measures is available to everyone. However, the assessment tools themselves can only be distributed to qualified mental health professionals and researchers. We maintain measures developed by affiliated staff of the National Center for PTSD.

See Assessment Measures Specifically for VA Providers and Staff to download the DRRI scales and manual.

For Non-VA Providers: please complete the online request form to obtain the DRRI-2.

Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page.

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Where to Get Help for PTSD

Using the PILOTS database for Assessment Information
The PILOTS database is the largest electronic index to the world's literature on traumatic stress.

The National Center for PTSD does not provide direct clinical care, individual referrals or benefits information.

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