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PTSD: National Center for PTSD


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Aftermath of Battle Scale



This section is for Researchers, Providers, & Helpers

Aftermath of Battle Scale

Scale in the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2
DRRI-2 Section: E
Survey Label: "Postbattle Experiences"


Exposure to the consequences of combat, including observing or handling human remains, interacting with detainees or POWs, and observing other consequences, such as devastated communities and homeless refugees. This factor is conceptualized as cataloging more objective war-zone events and circumstances.

Sample Items

  • I saw refugees who had lost their homes or belongings.
  • I saw civilians after they had been severely wounded or disfigured.
  • I interacted with detainees or prisoners of war.

Response Format

6-point Likert (1 = Never; 6 = Daily or almost daily)

To Obtain Scale

See Assessment Measures Specifically for VA Providers and Staff to download the DRRI scales and manual.

For Non-VA Providers: please complete the online request form to obtain the DRRI-2.

Measure availability: We provide information on a variety of measures assessing trauma and PTSD. These measures are intended for use by qualified mental health professionals and researchers. Measures authored by National Center staff are available as direct downloads or by request. Measures developed outside of the National Center can be requested via contact information available on the information page for the specific measure.

Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page.

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Also see: VA Mental Health