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PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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Aftermath of Battle Scale


Aftermath of Battle Scale

Scale in the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2
DRRI-2 Section: E
Survey Label: "Postbattle Experiences"


Exposure to the consequences of combat, including observing or handling human remains, interacting with detainees or POWs, and observing other consequences, such as devastated communities and homeless refugees. This factor is conceptualized as cataloging more objective war-zone events and circumstances.

Sample Items

  • I saw refugees who had lost their homes or belongings.
  • I saw civilians after they had been severely wounded or disfigured.
  • I interacted with detainees or prisoners of war.

Response Format

6-point Likert (1 = Never; 6 = Daily or almost daily)

Measure availability: Information on measures is available to everyone. However, the assessment tools themselves can only be distributed to qualified mental health professionals and researchers. We maintain measures developed by affiliated staff of the National Center for PTSD.

See Assessment Measures Specifically for VA Providers and Staff to download the DRRI scales and manual.

For Non-VA Providers: please complete the online request form to obtain the DRRI-2.

Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page.

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Where to Get Help for PTSD

Using the PILOTS database for Assessment Information
The PILOTS database is the largest electronic index to the world's literature on traumatic stress.

The National Center for PTSD does not provide direct clinical care, individual referrals or benefits information.

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