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PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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Types of Trauma

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Types of Trauma

These articles describe common traumas, their prevalence and potential impact on survivors, while also addressing treatment implications.

War and Military

Disaster and Terrorism

Key Information

Response and Treatment

Manuals and Tools

  • Psychological First Aid (PFA): Field Operations Guide
    PFA is an evidence-informed modular approach for assisting people in the immediate aftermath of disaster to reduce initial distress and to foster short and long-term adaptive functioning. The guide, created jointly with the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, is available in multiple languages and includes handouts for survivors. Online training and a YouTube PFA Channel are available.
  • Skills for Psychological Recovery (SPR) Guide
    SPR aims to help survivors gain skills to manage distress and cope with post-disaster stress and adversity. SPR is intended to follow Psychological First Aid (PFA) in the weeks and months following disaster and mass violence events. The guide was created jointly with the National Child Traumatic Stress Network as well as others involved in disaster response; training information is available.
  • PFA Mobile
    Following disasters or emergencies, the PFA Mobile app can assist responders who provide Psychological First Aid (PFA) to adults, families, and children.

Helping Specific Populations

Disaster and Terrorism Research

Sexual Trauma

  • Sexual Trauma: Information for Women's Medical Providers
    Provides basic information for medical providers working with women who have a history of sexual trauma and includes suggestions on how to prevent distress in patients.
  • Sexual Assault Against Females
    Defines sexual assault against females and describes how often it occurs, characteristics of perpetrators, and common reactions.
  • Child Sexual Abuse
    Defines child sexual abuse and includes information about prevalence, effects, perpetrator characteristics and safety advice.

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Article Database — PTSDpubs

Search the world’s literature on trauma and PTSD.

Get help for PTSD

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PTSD Information Voice Mail:
(802) 296-6300
ncptsd@va.gov
Also see: VA Mental Health