Attention A T users. To access the menus on this page please perform the following steps. 1. Please switch auto forms mode to off. 2. Hit enter to expand a main menu option (Health, Benefits, etc). 3. To enter and activate the submenu links, hit the down arrow. You will now be able to tab or arrow up or down through the submenu options to access/activate the submenu links.

PTSD: National Center for PTSD


Quick Links

Veterans Crisis Line Badge
My healthevet badge
EBenefits Badge

Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (CITES-2)



This section is for Researchers, Providers, & Helpers

This section is for Researchers, Providers, and Helpers

Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (CITES-2)

Wolfe, 1991


The CITES-2 (2002) is the most recent version of the CITES, a 78-item clinician-administered scale developed to assess the effects of sexual abuse on youths between the ages of 8 and 16 years old. It is designed as a continuous measure to assess, but can be used to determine diagnostic status. Items are rated on a 3-point Likert scale (“not true”, “somewhat true”, “very true”). The CITES-R is comprised of 4 main scales and 11 subscales: (1) PTSD (Intrusive Thoughts, Avoidance, Hyperarousal, and Sexual Anxiety); (2) Social Reactions (Negative Reactions from Others and Social Support); (3) Abuse Attributions (Self-Blame and Guilt, Empowerment, Personal Vulnerability, and Dangerous World); and (4) Eroticism.

Sample Items

Some people believe that I did a very bad thing.
This happened to me because I acted in a way that caused it to happen.
I have difficulty concentrating because I often think about what happened.

0 = Not true
1 = Somewhat true
2 = Very true


In addition to the CITES-2, the 25-item CITES-Family Violence Form (CITES-FVF) assesses the effects of family violence on the child.


Wolfe, V. V., Gentile, C., Michienzi, T., Sas, L., Wolfe, D. A. (1991). The Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale: a measure of post-sexual abuse PTSD symptoms. Behavioral Assessment, 13, 359–383.

Additional Reviews

Ohan, J. L., Myers, K., Collett, B. R. (2002). Ten-year review of rating scales. IV: scales assessing trauma and its effects. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1401-22.

To Obtain Scale

Vicky V. Wolfe, PhD
Department of Psychology
London Health Sciences Center
London, Ontario, Canada N6A 4G5
Email: Vicky.Wolfe@LHSC.ON.CA

Measure availability: We provide information on a variety of measures assessing trauma and PTSD. These measures are intended for use by qualified mental health professionals and researchers. Measures authored by National Center staff are available as direct downloads or by request. Measures developed outside of the National Center can be requested via contact information available on the information page for the specific measure.

Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page.

Share this page

Search Pilots

Search PILOTS*, the largest citation database on PTSD.
What is PILOTS?

The National Center for PTSD does not provide direct clinical care, individual referrals or benefits information.

PTSD Information Voice Mail:
(802) 296-6300
Contact Us:
Also see: VA Mental Health