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PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2)


Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2)

The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2) is a suite of 17 individual scales that assess key deployment-related risk and resilience factors with demonstrated implications for Veterans' post-deployment health. For more information, read the DRRI history and development. The DRRI-2 can also be used clinically. The DRRI-2 includes the following scales:

Predeployment Factors

Deployment Factors

Postdeployment Factors

Short Form

To date, the DRRI-2 includes one short form measure. The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 Warfare Exposure—Short Form (DRRI-2 WE-SF) is a self-report exposure measure that was developed from two DRRI-2 scales (Combat Experiences and Warfare Aftermath of Battle). This short form includes 9 items that measure direct exposures to warfare and its consequences. Additional information on this short form measure is available here: Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 Warfare Exposure—Short Form (DRRI-2 WE-SF).


Vogt, D. S., Smith, B. N., King, L. A., King, D. W., Knight, J. A., & Vasterling, J. J. (2013). Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2): An updated tool for assessing psychosocial risk and resilience factors among Service members and Veterans (PDF). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(6), 710-717. PTSDpubs ID: 87988

Bovin, M. J., Schneiderman, A., Bernhard, P. A., Maguen, S., Hoffmire, C. A., Blosnich, J. R., Smith, B. N., Kulka, R., & Vogt, D. (2022). Development and validation of a brief warfare exposure measure among U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans: The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 Warfare Exposure—Short Form (DRRI-2 WE-SF). Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Advance online publication.

To Obtain Scale

This measure was created by staff at VA's National Center for PTSD.
The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 scales and the WE-SF are available for download:

Note: This is a second version of the DRRI. To request the original DRRI, please contact Dr. Dawne Vogt.

Are you using this measure with U.S. Veterans or Service members?

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Our PTSD Consultation Program can answer administration or scoring questions: or 866-948-7880.

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Measure availability: We provide information on a variety of measures assessing trauma and PTSD. These measures are intended for use by qualified mental health professionals and researchers. Measures authored by National Center staff are available as direct downloads or by request. Measures developed outside of the National Center can be requested via contact information available on the information page for the specific measure.

Other sources of information on measures and how to obtain them include:

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PTSD Information Voice Mail: (802) 296-6300
Also see: VA Mental Health