Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI) - PTSD: National Center for PTSD
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Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI)

 
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Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI)

Dawne Vogt, PhD

Description

The EASI is a 40-item self-report inventory that consists of 5 scales assessing mental health beliefs that may be particularly salient for military and Veteran populations, particularly with regard to their willingness to seek mental health treatment. Respondents are asked to rate 8 items in each of 5 scales, 3 that address key aspects of endorsed stigma and 2 that assess key aspects of anticipated stigma:

  • Beliefs about mental illness (endorsed stigma)
  • Beliefs about mental health treatment (endorsed stigma)
  • Beliefs about treatment seeking (endorsed stigma)
  • Concerns about stigma from loved ones (anticipated stigma)
  • Concerns about stigma in the workplace (anticipated stigma)

Each scale uses a 5-point Likert-type response format: 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (somewhat disagree), 3 (neither agree nor disagree), 4 (somewhat agree), 5 (strongly agree):

Administration and Scoring

The EASI is a self-report measure that can be completed in approximately 10 minutes.

Items within each of the 5 scales can be summed to create 5 scale scores. The items should not be combined to create a total score, as the scales are stand-alone measures.

Users may elect to administer a subset of these scales rather than all 5 scales (e.g., the 3 endorsed stigma scales or the 2 anticipated stigma scales).

Sample Items

Item: People with mental health problems cannot be counted on. (Beliefs about Mental Illness)
Response: 5-point Likert (1 = "Strongly Disagree" to 5 = "Strongly Agree")

Item: Mental health treatment generally does not work. (Beliefs about Mental Health Treatment)
Response: 5-point Likert (1 = "Strongly Disagree" to 5 = "Strongly Agree")

Item: If I had a mental health problem, I would prefer to deal with it myself rather than to seek treatment. (Beliefs about Treatment Seeking)
Response: 5-point Likert (1 = "Strongly Disagree" to 5 = "Strongly Agree")

Item: If I had a mental health problem and friends and family knew about it, they would think less of me. (Concerns about Stigma from Loved Ones)
Response: 5-point Likert (1 = "Strongly Disagree" to 5 = "Strongly Agree")

Item: If I had a mental health problem and people at work knew about it, they would think I am not capable of doing my job. (Concerns about Stigma in the Workplace)
Response: 5-point Likert (1 = "Strongly Disagree" to 5 = "Strongly Agree")

Citation

Vogt, D., Di Leone, B. A. L., Wang, J. M., Sayer, N. A., Pineles, S. L. & Litz, B. T. (2014). The Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI) [Measurement instrument]. Available from https://www.ptsd.va.gov.

References

Vogt, D., Di Leone, B. A. L., Wang, J. M., Sayer, N. A., Pineles, S. L. & Litz, B. T. (2014). Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI): A tool for assessing beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment among military personnel and Veterans. Psychological Services, 11(1), 105-113. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032780

Vogt, D., Fox, A., & Di Leone, B. A. L. (2014). Mental health beliefs and their relationship with treatment seeking among U.S. OEF/OIF Veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(3), 307-313. https://www.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2191

Fox, A. B., Meyer, E. C. & Vogt, D. (2015). Attitudes about the VA health-care setting, mental illness, and mental health treatment and their relationship with VA mental health service use among female and male OEF/OIF Veterans. Psychological Services. 12(1), 49-58. https://www.doi.org/10.1037/a0038269

To Obtain Scale

This measure was developed by staff at VA's National Center for PTSD and is in the public domain and not copyrighted. In accordance with the American Psychological Association's ethical guidelines, this instrument is intended for use by qualified health professionals and researchers.

Download the Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI):

Are you using this measure with U.S. Veterans or Service members?

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Our PTSD Consultation Program can answer administration or scoring questions: PTSDconsult@va.gov or 866-948-7880.

Measure availability: We provide information on a variety of measures assessing trauma and PTSD. These measures are intended for use by qualified mental health professionals and researchers. Measures authored by National Center staff are available as direct downloads or by request. Measures developed outside of the National Center can be requested via contact information available on the information page for the specific measure.

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PTSD Information Voice Mail: (802) 296-6300
Email: ncptsd@va.gov
Also see: VA Mental Health