Attention A T users. To access the menus on this page please perform the following steps. 1. Please switch auto forms mode to off. 2. Hit enter to expand a main menu option (Health, Benefits, etc). 3. To enter and activate the submenu links, hit the down arrow. You will now be able to tab or arrow up or down through the submenu options to access/activate the submenu links.

PTSD: National Center for PTSD

Menu
Menu

Quick Links

Veterans Crisis Line Badge
My healthevet badge
EBenefits Badge
 

Risk and Resilience Factors After Disaster and Mass Violence

Share this page

Risk and Resilience Factors After Disaster and Mass Violence

Millions of people have been directly affected by disaster and mass violence, yet the vast majority of them recover from any stress reactions they experience. At the same time, some survivors will develop psychological disorders such as major depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many more experience non-specific distress, somatic complaints and other medical health conditions. Risk and resilience (or protective) factors influence the impact of a disaster or mass violence on affected individuals.

Risk Factors

Severity of exposure to the event (especially injury, threat to life, and extreme loss) and post-event adversities consistently and most strongly influence the likelihood of serious or lasting psychological problems following disaster and mass violence. Individual, social, and community-level risk factors also can play a role in how survivors will fare after these events.

Severity of Exposure

The amount and nature of exposure to the event is highly related to risk of future mental health problems, such that injury and life threat as well as proximity to the disaster or violence are most predictive of likelihood of distress, difficulty functioning, and potential psychological impairment, even up to 10 years after the event (1-15).

Those who directly experience the event will feel a more lasting impact, followed by those in close contact with immediate survivors. In one review of literature, for example, in the first year after a disaster, prevalence of PTSD ranged between 30% and 40% among direct victims, while between 10% and 20% of rescue workers and 5 to 10% of the general population were similarly affected (16). Type of disaster also impacts long term adjustment in research samples, with mass violence samples being more likely to report severe impact than technological or natural disasters samples (17).

Where significant displacement occurs, separation from home and family has been noted as a risk factor for anxiety and depression in some individuals (2,18-23).

Perception of health risk in chemical and radiological disasters increases risk for long-term anxiety and somatic symptoms, even in unexposed populations (24-27).

Post-Event Adversity

Post-event stress and adversity along with weak or deteriorating psychosocial resources have consistently been shown to be significant risk factors for long-term adjustment problems and psychopathology (e.g., 2,10,28-32). These can include factors such as loss of employment, financial constraints, and relationship difficulties (31,33). For instance, in a study conducted five years after bushfires, life stressors—many of which were related to ongoing social and economic disruption caused by the fires—contributed the most to delayed onset or lingering PTSD, depression, and distress (34).

Individual Factors

Demographic risk factors for adjustment problems and psychopathology following disaster and mass violence include female gender, ethnic minority group membership, poverty or low socioeconomic status, little previous experience in coping with these types of events, prior exposures to highly stressful experiences, prior history of mental disorders, and being aged 40 to 60. Risks also increase among those over 65 who are sick, economically disadvantaged, impacted by evacuation procedures, or frail (3,9-10,13-15,17,30).

There are a number of cognitive factors that are related to increased risk following disaster and mass violence, including negative coping strategies, such as rumination and self-blame (e.g., 35,36), negative appraisals (about the event, personal role in the event, reactions, and potential future risk; e.g., 37), avoidance coping (30), negative religious appraisals (e.g., viewing the event as punishment; 5,38), and assignment of blame (e.g., 39-41).

Two personality traits have been linked to depression following disaster and mass violence. Those with higher neuroticism—a tendency to experience sadness, anger, and fear, and a susceptibility to the effects of stress on mood—are more at risk for depression. Extraversion—a tendency to experience positive emotions and to be engaged with others—also plays a role. People with lower extraversion are similarly at risk for depression (42).

Specific to mass shootings, guilt and resentment, insecurity, anxiety sensitivity, beliefs that events are random and uncontrollable, pre-existing lack of social support, ruminative and avoidant coping styles, and punitive attitudes toward crime have all been found to increase risk for PTSD, depression, and anxiety disorders following these events (43-47).

Social Factors

Though perhaps high in the immediate aftermath of disaster or mass violence, social support can deteriorate over time. Continuing post-disaster stress and the need for survivors to rebuild their own lives may make it difficult for them to offer positive support to others. Following mass trauma, previous in group-out group divisions—racial, religious, ethnic, social, or tribal—may become apparent as people try to gain access to much needed resources. This may be true even if those divisions previously seemed resolved (48-50).

Lack of social support—or perceived barriers to it—has been shown to be related to worse recovery following disasters (1,32,51-53). And receiving negative social support, in which members of one's social circle minimize survivors' problems or needs, harbor unrealistic expectations regarding their recovery, or downplay their pain, is a strong correlate to long-term post-trauma distress.

Specific to the aftermath of mass shootings, unique social factors have also been reported to increase risk for anxiety, distress, and poor functioning. These include factors such as perceived pressure to participate in events designed to promote community unity, such as memorials and community meetings, a sense of guilt that the community didn't prevent the shooting, or shame that one's community is now identified with the shooting, differences in readiness to "move on" or to become involved in legal matters, or viewing perceived outsiders with distrust (23,54-57).

Social factors within the family have also been reported to increase risk of long term distress following disasters and mass violence. For instance, the presence of children in the home increases the stressfulness of disaster recovery among their parents. The presence of a severely distressed family member, interpersonal conflict, and lack of support in the home are risk factors for more severe post-traumatic reactions (17). Conflicts may arise because differing exposure levels among family members can result in differing courses of post-trauma recovery. Finally, family members may serve as distressing reminders to each other of the circumstances surrounding the event.

Community-Level Factors

Community-level factors have been shown to create additional risk for individuals (51,58,59). For instance, displacement and low community social cohesion have been associated with worse mental health outcomes above and beyond individual-level characteristics (2,20,21,60).

Protective Factors

In addition to identifying risk factors, disaster and mass violence research also describes protective factors (or resilience) at the individual, social, and community level (7,8,10,30).

Individual Factors

A number of demographic factors have been reported to confer reduced risk for psychopathology and prolonged distress. These include male gender, greater education levels, and older age (for those with no reported mobility issues or illness) (10,30). Additionally, certain personality factors foster resilience. These include having a greater capacity for hope or optimism, being generally less negative and more emotionally stable, being agreeable, and having perceived coping self-efficacy or the specific sense that one can cope with what has happened (61-63).

There are a number of adaptive skills that have been shown to be protective following disasters and mass violence, such as having an ability to reframe what has happened in a more positive, energizing, or helpful way; the ability to use distraction when appropriate to reduce distress; the capacity to fit coping strategies to the context in a flexible way; the ability to make meaning of the situation based on personal values; the use of positive religious strategies; and the capacity to seek support from others when needed (e.g., 38,64-66). Interventions such as Skills for Psychological Recovery focus on fostering many of these adaptive skills.

Social Factors

Social support is one of the key ingredients to recovery following disasters and mass violence. It has been shown to facilitate well-being and limit psychological distress. Social connectedness increases opportunities for knowledge essential to recovery from the event. It also provides opportunities for a range of social support activities, including practical problem-solving, emotional understanding and acceptance, sharing of traumatic experiences, normalization of reactions and experiences, and mutual instruction about coping (9,10,53,59,65,67-71).

Community-Level Factors

A socially cohesive and well-resourced community has been shown to be better positioned to identify and assist those in need, disseminate information across the community, and advocate for outside aid following disasters and mass violence (72-74).

Conclusion

Because of the findings regarding multiple risk and protective factors, and the fact that many people are able to handle the demands placed upon them by disasters and mass violence, knowledge of the unique combination of risk and protective factors is an important step in response to these events.

Many researchers suggest assessing pre-existing, event-related, and post-event risk factors, as well as existing strengths, resources, and abilities. Rather than offering global interventions, which may undermine natural coping abilities, support can then be tailored as needed, with a focus on fostering protective factors (41,75-77).

References

  1. Dai, W., Wang, J., Kaminga, A. C., Chen, L., Tan, H., Lai, Z., Deng, J., & Liu, A. (2016). Predictors of recovery from post-traumatic stress disorder after the Dongting Lake flood in China: A 13-14 year follow-up study. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 382. doi:10.1186/s12888-016-1097-x
  2. Gallagher, H. C., Richardson, J., Forbes, D., Harms, L., Gibbs, L., Alkemade, N., ... & Bryant, R. A. (2016). Mental health following separation in a disaster: The role of attachment. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29, 56-64. doi:10.1002/jts22-71
  3. Bromet, E. J., Atwoli, L., Kawakami, N., Navarro-Mateu, F., Piotrowski, P., King, A. J., ... & Kessler, R. C. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with natural and human-made disasters in the World Mental Health Surveys. Medicine, 47, 227-241. doi:10.1017/s0033291716002026
  4. Gibbs, L., Block, K., Harms, L., MacDougall, C., Snowdon, E., Ireton, G., ... & Waters E. (2015). Children and young people's wellbeing post-disaster: Safety and stability are critical. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 14,195-201. doi:10.1016/j. ijdrr.2015.06.006
  5. Henslee, A. M., Coffey, S. F., Schumacher, J. A., Tracy, M., Norris, F., & Galea, S. (2015). Religious coping and psychological and behavioral adjustment after Hurricane Katrina. The Journal of Psychology, 149, 630-642. doi:10.1080/00223980.2014.953441
  6. van Kessel, G., Gibbs, L., & MacDougall, C. (2015). Strategies to enhance resilience post-natural disaster: A qualitative study of experiences with Australian floods and fires. Journal of Public Health, 37, 328-336. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdu051
  7. West, J. C., Benedek, D. M., Hamaoka, D. A., & Ursano, R. J. (2015). Managing psychological consequences in disaster populations. Psychiatry, 1, 2521-2532. doi:10.1002/9781118753378.ch127
  8. Gruebner, O., Lowe, S. R., Sampson, L., & Galea, S. (2015). The geography of post-disaster mental health: Spatial patterning of psychological vulnerability and resilience factors in New York City after Hurricane Sandy. International Journal of Health Geographics, 14, 16. doi:10.1186/s12942-015-0008-6
  9. Lowe, S. R., Joshi, S., Pietrzak, R. H., Galea, S., & Cerdá, M. (2015). Mental health and general wellness in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 162-170. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.11.032
  10. Lowe, S. R., Rhodes, J. E., & Waters, M. C. (2015). Understanding resilience and other trajectories of psychological distress: A mixed-methods study of low-income mothers who survived Hurricane Katrina. Current Psychology, 34, 537-550. doi:10.1007/s12144-015-9362-6
  11. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Boden, J. M., & Mulder, R. T. (2014). Impact of a major disaster on the mental health of a well-studied cohort. JAMA Psychiatry, 71, 1025-1031. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.652
  12. Smid, G. E., van der Velden, P. G., Gersons, B. P. R., & Kleber, R. J. (2012). Late-onset posttraumatic stress disorder following a disaster: A longitudinal study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4, 312-322. doi:10.1037/a0023868
  13. Wilson, L. C. (2015). A systematic review of probable posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders following man-made mass violence. Psychiatry Research, 229, 21-26. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.06.015
  14. Mancini, A. D., Littleton, H. L., & Grills, A. E. (2016). Can people benefit from acute stress? Social support, psychological improvement, and resilience after the Virginia Tech campus shootings. Clinical Psychological Science, 4, 401-417. doi:10.1177/2167702615601001
  15. Hughes, M., Brymer, M., Chiu, W. T., Fairbank, J. A., Jones, R. T., Pynoos, R. S., ... & Kessler, R. C. (2011). Posttraumatic stress among students after the shootings at Virginia Tech. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3, 403. doi:10.1037/a00024565
  16. Neria, Y., Nandi, A., & Galea, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38, 467-480. doi:10.1017/S0033291707001353
  17. Norris, F. H., & Elrod, C. L. (2006). Psychosocial consequences of disaster: A review of past research. In F. H. Norris, S. Galea, M. J. Friedman, & P. J. Watson (Eds.), Methods for disaster mental health research (pp. 20-42). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
  18. Pfefferbaum, B., Jacobs, A. K., Houston, J. B., & Griffin, N. (2015). Children's disaster reactions: The influence of family and social factors. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17, 57. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0597-6
  19. Viswanath, B., Maroky, A. S., Math, S. B., John, J. P., Cherian, A. V., Girimaji, S. C., ... & Chaturvedi, S. K. (2013). Gender differences in the psychological impact of tsunami. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59, 130-136. doi:10.1177/0020764011423469
  20. McCall-Hosenfeld, J. S., Mukherjee, S., & Lehman, E. B. (2014). The prevalence and correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures in urban and rural settings: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Psychotraumatology, 6(NCS-R). PloS one, 9, e112416. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112416
  21. Fussell, E., & Lowe, S. R. (2014). The impact of housing displacement on the mental health of low-income parents after Hurricane Katrina. Social Science & Medicine, 113, 137-144. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.05.025
  22. Coker, A. L., Hanks, J. S., Eggleston, K. S., Risser, J., Tee, P. G., Chronister, K. J., ... & Franzini, L. (2006). Social and mental health needs assessment of Katrina evacuees. Disaster Management & Response, 4, 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.dmr.2006.06.001
  23. DiMaggio, C., Madrid, P. A., Loo, G. T., & Galea, S. (2008). The mental health consequences of terrorism: Implications for emergency medicine practitioners. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 35, 139-147. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.03.037
  24. Hansen, B. T., Østergaard, S. D., Sønderskov, K. M., & Dinesen, P. T. (2016). Increased incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders in Denmark after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 184, 494-500. doi:10.1093/aje/kww089
  25. Suzuki, Y., Yabe, H., Yasumura, S., Ohira, T., Niwa, S., Ohtsuru, A., ... & Abe, M. (2015). Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: The Fukushima health management survey. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 93, 598-605. doi:10.2471/BLT.14.146498
  26. Oe, M., Maeda, M., Nagai, M., Yasumura, S., Yabe, H., Suzuki, Y., ... & Abe, M. (2016). Predictors of severe psychological distress trajectory after nuclear disaster: evidence from the Fukushima Health Management Survey. BMJ Open, 6, e013400. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013400
  27. McCormick, L. C., Tajeu, G. S., & Klapow, J. (2015). Mental health consequences of chemical and radiologic emergencies: A systematic review. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 33, 197-211. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2014.09.012
  28. Bryant, R. A., Gallagher, H. C., Gibbs, L., Pattison, P., MacDougall, C., Harms, L., ... & Lusher, D. (2016). Mental health and social networks after disaster. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 277-285. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15111403
  29. Palinkas, L. (2012). A conceptual framework for understanding the mental health impacts of oil spills: Lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Psychiatry, 75, 203-222. doi:10.1521/psyc.2012.75.3.203
  30. Goldmann, E., & Galea, S. (2014). Mental health consequences of disasters. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 169-183. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182435
  31. Cerdá¡, M., Bordelois, P. M., Galea, S., Norris, F., Tracy, M., & Koenen, K. C. (2013). The course of posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment following a disaster: What is the lasting influence of acute versus ongoing traumatic events and stressors? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48, 385-395. doi:10.1007/s00127-012-0560-3
  32. Hobfoll, S. E. (2012). Conservation of resources and disaster in cultural context: The caravans and passageways for resources. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 75, 227-232. doi:10.1521/psych/2012.75.3.227
  33. Galea, S., Ahern, J., Tracy, M., Hubbard, A., Cerdá, M., Goldmann, E., & Vlahov, D. (2008). Longitudinal determinants of posttraumatic stress in a population-based cohort study. Epidemiology, 19, 47-54. doi:10.1097/EDE.06013e31815c1dbf
  34. Bryant, R. A., Gibbs, L., Gallagher, H. C., Pattison, P., Lusher, D., MacDougall, C., ... & Forbes, D. (2018). Longitudinal study of changing psychological outcomes following the Victorian Black Saturday bushfires. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 542-551. doi:10.1177/0004867417714337
  35. García, F. E., Cova, F., Rincón, P., & Vázquez, C. (2015). Trauma or growth after a natural disaster? The mediating role of rumination processes. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6, 26557. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v6.26557
  36. Jenness, J. L., Jager Hyman, S., Heleniak, C., Beck, A. T., Sheridan, M. A., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack. Depression and Anxiety, 33, 1039-1047. doi:10.1002/da.22548
  37. Ehlers, A., & Wild, J. (2015). Cognitive therapy for PTSD: Updating memories and meanings of trauma. In U. Schnyder & M. Cloitre (Eds.), Evidence based treatments for trauma-related psychological disorders (pp. 161-187). Springer, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-07109-1
  38. Henslee, A. M., Coffey, S. F., Schumacher, J. A., Tracy, M., H. Norris, F., & Galea, S. (2015). Religious coping and psychological and behavioral adjustment after Hurricane Katrina. The Journal of Psychology, 149, 630-642. doi:10.1080/00223980.2014.953441
  39. Gibbs, L., Howell-Meurs, S., Block, K., Lusher, D., Richardson, J., MacDougall, C., Waters, E., & Harms, L. (2015). Measuring community wellbeing: Applications for a disaster context. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 30, 20-24. Retrieved from: https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/media/1473/ajem-30-03-06.pdf
  40. Pietrzak, R. H., Van Ness, P. H., Fried, T. R., Galea, S., & Norris, F. H. (2013). Trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptomatology in older persons affected by a large-magnitude disaster. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47, 520-526. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.12.005
  41. Bonanno, G. A., Brewin, C. R., Kaniasty, K., & La Greca, A. M. (2010). Weighing the costs of disaster: Consequences, risks, and resilience in individuals, families, and communities. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11, 1-49. doi:10.1177/1529100610387086
  42. Kopala-Sibley, D. C., Kotov, R., Bromet, E. J., Carlson, G. A., Danzig, A. P., Black, S. R., & Klein, D. N. (2016). Personality diatheses and Hurricane Sandy: Effects on post-disaster depression. Psychological Medicine, 46, 865-875. doi:10.1017/S0033291715002378
  43. Schwarz, E. D., & Kowalski, J. M. (1992). Personality characteristics and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a school shooting. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 735-737. doi:10.1097/00005053-199211000-00013
  44. Stephenson, K. L., Valentiner, D. P., Kumpula, M. J., & Orcutt, H. K. (2009). Anxiety sensitivity and posttrauma stress symptoms in female undergraduates following a campus shooting. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 489-496. doi:10.1002/jts.20457
  45. Littleton, H., Grills-Taquechel, A. E., Axsom, D., Bye, K., & Buck, K. (2012). Prior sexual trauma and adjustment following the Virginia Tech campus shootings: Examination of the mediating role of schemas and social support. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4, 578-586. doi:10.1037/a0025270
  46. Smith, A. J., Abeyta, A. A., Hughes, M., & Jones, R. T. (2014). Persistent grief in the aftermath of mass violence: The predictive roles of posttraumatic stress symptoms, self-efficacy, and disrupted worldview. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 7, 179-186. doi:10.1037/tra0000002
  47. Vuori, M., Hawdon, J., Atte, O., & Räsänen, P. (2013). Collective crime as a source of social solidarity: A tentative test of a functional model for response to mass violence. Western Criminology Review, 14(3), 1-15.
  48. Kaniasty, K., & Norris, F. H. (1995). In search of altruistic community: Patterns of social support mobilization following Hurricane Hugo. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 447-477. doi:10.1007/BF02506964
  49. Giel, R. (1990). Psychosocial processes in disasters. International Journal of Mental Health, 19, 7-20. doi:10.1080/00207411.1990.11449150
  50. Hobfoll, S. E., Canetti-Nisim, D., & Johnson, R. J. (2006). Exposure to terrorism, stress-related mental health symptoms, and defensive coping among Jews and Arabs in Israel. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 207-218. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.2.207
  51. Fink, D. S., & Galea, S. (2015). Life course epidemiology of trauma and related psychopathology in civilian populations. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17, 31. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0566-0
  52. Thoresen, S., Jensen, T. K., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Dyb, G. (2014). Social support barriers and mental health in terrorist attack survivors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 156, 187-193. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.014
  53. Felix, E. D., & Afifi, W. (2015). The role of social support on mental health after multiple wildfire disasters. Journal of Community Psychology, 43, 156-170. doi:10.1002/jcop.21671
  54. Johnson, S. D., North, C. S., & Smith, E. M. (2002). Psychiatric disorders among victims of a courthouse shooting spree: A three -yar follow-up study. Community Mental Health, 38, 181-194. doi:10.1023/A:10152695
  55. Lowe, S. R., & Galea, S. (2017). The mental health consequences of mass shootings. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18, 62-82. doi:10.1177/1524838015591572
  56. Murtonen, K., Suomalainen, L., Haravuori, H., & Marttunen, M. (2011). Adolescents' experiences of psychosocial support after traumatisation in a school shooting. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17, 23-30. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2011.00612.x
  57. Littleton, H., Dodd, J. C., & Rudolph, K. (2016). Psychosocial functioning within shooting affected communities: Individual and community level factors. In L. C. Wilson (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of the psychology of mass shootings, (pp. 210-228). West Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/9781119048015.ch12
  58. Abramson, D. M., Grattan, L. M., Mayer, B., Colten, C. E., Arosemena, F. A., Bedimo-Rung, A., & Lichtveld, M. (2015). The resilience activation framework: A conceptual model of how access to social resources promotes adaptation and rapid recovery in post-disaster settings. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 42, 42-57. doi:10.1007/s11414-014-9410-2
  59. Lowe, S. R., Sampson, L., Gruebner, O., & Galea, S. (2015). Psychological resilience after Hurricane Sandy: The influence of individual- and community-level factors on mental health after a large-scale natural disaster. PloS one, 10, e0125761. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125761
  60. Johns, L. E., Aiello, A. E., Cheng, C., Galea, S., Koenen, K. C., & Uddin, M. (2012). Neighborhood social cohesion and posttraumatic stress disorder in a community-based sample: Findings from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47, 1899-1906. doi:10.1007/s00127-012-0506-9
  61. Cherry, K. E., Sampson, L., Nezat, P. F., Cacamo, A., Marks, L. D., & Galea, S. (2015). Long-term psychological outcomes in older adults after disaster: Relationships to religiosity and social support. Aging & Mental Health, 19, 430-443. doi:10.1080/13607863.2014.941325
  62. , M. W., & Van der Velden, P. G. (2015). Longitudinal interplay between posttraumatic stress symptoms and coping self-efficacy: A four-wave prospective study. Social Science & Medicine, 134, 23-29. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.007
  63. Bosmans, M. W., Benight, C. C., Knaap, L. M., Winkel, F. W., & Velden, P. G. (2013). The associations between coping self‐efficacy and posttraumatic stress symptoms 10 years postdisaster: Differences between men and women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 184-191. doi:10.1002/jts.21789
  64. Shing, E. Z., Jayawickreme, E., & Waugh, C. E. (2016). Contextual positive coping as a factor contributing to resilience after disasters. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72, 1287-1306. doi:10.1002/jclp.22327
  65. Thabet, A. M., Thabet, S. S., & Vostanis, P. (2016). The relationships between mental health problems and family coping strategies among Palestinian in the Gaza Strip. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 17(8), 1-11. doi:10.9734/BJMMR/2016/27747
  66. Aiena, B. J., Buchanan, E. M., Smith, C. V., & Schulenberg, S. E. (2015). Meaning, resilience, and traumatic stress after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A study of Mississippi coastal residents seeking mental health services. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72, 1264-1278. doi:10.1002/jclp.22232
  67. Platt, J. M., Lowe, S. R., Galea, S., Norris, F. H., & Koenen, K. C. (2016). A longitudinal study of the bidirectional relationship between social support and posttraumatic stress following a natural disaster. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29, 205-213. doi:10.1002/jts.22092
  68. Gibbs, L., Waters, E., Bryant, R. A., Pattison, P., Lusher, D., Harms, L., ... & Forbes D. (2013). Beyond bushfires: Community, resilience and recovery - a longitudinal mixed method study of the medium to long term impacts of bushfires on mental health and social connectedness. BMC Public Health, 13, 1036. doi10.1186/1471-2458-13-1036
  69. van Kessel, G., MacDougall, C., & Gibbs, L. (2015). The process of rebuilding human resilience in the face of the experience of a natural disaster: A multisystem model. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17, 678-687. doi:10.4172/1522-4821.1000286
  70. Hobfoll, S. E., Stevens, N. R., & Zalta, A. K. (2015). Expanding the science of resilience: Conserving resources in the aid of adaptation. Psychological Inquiry, 26, 174-180. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2015.1002377
  71. Hobfoll, S. E., Palmieri, P. A., Johnson, R. J., Canetti-Nisim, D., Hall, B. J., & Galea, S. (2009). Trajectories of resilience, resistance, and distress during ongoing terrorism: The case of Jews and Arabs in Israel. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 138-148. doi:10.1037/a0014360
  72. Hikichi, H., Aida, J., Tsuboya, T., Kondo, K., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Can community social cohesion prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of a disaster? A natural experiment from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. American Journal of Epidemiology, 183, 902-910. doi:10.1093/aje/kwv335
  73. Drury, J., Brown, R., González, R., & Miranda, D. (2015). Emergent social identity and observing social support predict social support provided by survivors in a disaster: Solidarity in the 2010 Chile earthquake. European Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 209-223. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2146
  74. Norris, F. H., Stevens, S. P., Pfefferbaum B., Wyche, K. F., Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 127-150. doi:10.1007/s10464-007-9156-6
  75. Bonanno, G. A., Romero, S. A., & Klein, S. I. (2015). The temporal elements of psychological resilience: An integrative framework for the study of individuals, families, and communities. Psychological Inquiry, 26, 139-169. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2015.992677
  76. Bonanno, G. A., Westphal, M., & Mancini, A. D. (2011). Resilience to loss and potential trauma. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 511-535. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032210-104526
  77. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543-562. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00164

You May Also Be Interested In

Continuing Education Online Courses

Learn from expert researchers and earn free Continuing Education (CE) credits.

PTSD Consultation Program

Expert guidance for treating Veterans with PTSD.

Article Database — PTSDpubs

Search the world’s literature on trauma and PTSD.

Get help for PTSD

If you need help right away:

FacebookTwitterYouTube

PTSD Information Voice Mail:
(802) 296-6300
ncptsd@va.gov
Also see: VA Mental Health