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PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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Wang, P. S., Berglund, P. A., & Kessler, R. C. ( 2003). Patterns and correlates of contacting clergy for mental disorders in the United States. Health Services Research, 38, 647-673. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.00138
Greene-Shortridge, T. M., Britt, T. W., & Castro, C. A. (2007). The stigma of mental health problems in the military. Military Medicine, 172, 157-161. doi:10.7205/MILMED.172.2.157
Breslau, N. (2012). Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults. Oxford Handbooks Online. Retrieved 10 Apr. 2016, from 9780195399066.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780195399066-e-7.
Wisco, B. E., Marx, B. P., Wolf, E. J., Miller, M. W., Southwick, S. M., & Pietrzak, R. H. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the US Veteran population: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75, 1338-1346. doi:10.4088/JCP.14m09328
Department of Veterans Affairs & Department of Defense. (2010). VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of posttraumatic stress [Version 2.0]. Washington, DC: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Defense. Available from
Lee, D. J., Warner, C. H., & Hoge, C. W. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder screening in the U.S. military and VA populations. In Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Related Diseases in Combat Veterans (pp. 13-26). Springer International Publishing.
Prins, A., Bovin, M. J., Smolenski, D. J., Marx, B. P., Kimerling, R., Jenkins-Guarnieri, M. A., Kaloupek, D. G., Schnurr, P. P., Pless Kaiser, A., Leyva, Y. E., & Tiet, Q. Q. (2016). The Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5): Development and evaluation within a Veteran primary care sample. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 1-6. doi:10.1007/s11606-016-3703-5
Wortmann, J. H., & Park, C. L. (2008). Religion and spirituality in adjustment following bereavement: An integrative review. Death Studies, 32, 703-736.
Pieper, J. Z. T. (2004). Religious coping in highly religious psychiatric inpatients. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 7, 349-363. doi:10.1080/13674670410001719805
Phillips, R. E., & Stein, C. H. (2007). God's will, God's punishment, or God's limitations? Religious coping strategies reported by young adults living with serious mental illness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 529-540. doi:10.1002/jclp.20364
Olson, M. M., Trevino, D. B., Geske, J. A., & Vanderpool, H. (2012). Religious coping and mental health outcomes: An exploratory study of socioeconomically disadvantaged patients. Explore, 8, 172-176. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2012.02.005
Rippentrop, A. E., Altmaier, E. M., Chen, J. J., Found, E. M., & Keffala, V. J. (2005). The relationship between religion/spirituality and physical health, mental health, and pain in a chronic pain population. Pain, 116, 311-321. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2005.05.008
Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20-28.
Southwick, S. M., Pietrzak, R. H., Tsai, J., Krystal, J. H. & Charney, D. S. (2014). Resilience: An update. PTSD Research Quarterly, 25. Available from: /PTSD/publications/rq_docs/V25N4.pdf
Southwick, S. M., & Charney, D. S. (2012). Resilience: The science of mastering life's greatest challenges. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tedeschi, R. G., & McNally, R. J. (2011). Can we facilitate posttraumatic growth in combat Veterans? American Psychologist, 66, 19-24. doi:10.1037/a0021896
Zoellner, T., & Maercker, A. (2006). Posttraumatic growth in clinical psychology - a critical review and introduction of a two component model. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 626-653. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.01.008
Davis, C. G., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Larson, J. (1998). Making sense of loss and benefiting from the experience: Two construals of meaning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 561-574. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.561
Litz, B. T., Stein, N., Delaney, E., Lebowittz, L., Nash, W. P., Silva, C., & Maguen, S. (2009). Moral injury and moral repair in war Veterans: A preliminary model and intervention strategy. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 695-706. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.07.003
Drescher, K. D., Foy, D. W., Kelly, C., Leshner, A., Schutz, A., & Litz, B.T. (2011). An exploration of the viability and usefulness of the construct of moral injury in war Veterans. Traumatology, 17, 8-13. doi:10.1177/1534765610395615
Maguen, S., Metzler, T. J., Litz, B. T., Seal, K. H., Knight, S. J., & Marmar, C. R. (2009). The impact of killing in war on mental health symptoms and related functioning. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 435-443. doi:10.1002/jts.20451
Maguen, S., Lucenko, B. A., Reger, M. A., Gahm, G. A., Litz, B. T., Seal, K. H., Knight, S. J. & Marmar, C. R. (2010). The impact of reported direct and indirect killing on mental health symptoms in Iraq War Veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 86-90. doi:10.1002/jts.20434
Fontana, A., & Rosenheck, R. (2004). Trauma, change in strength of religious faith, and mental health service use among Veterans treated for PTSD. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 579-584. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000138224.17375.55
Harris, J. I., Leak, G. K., Dubke, R., & Voecks, C. (2015). Religious strain and postconventional religiousness in trauma survivors. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 7, 173-178. doi:10.1037/rel0000026
Weber, S. R., & Pargament, K. I. (2014). The role of religion and spirituality in mental health. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 27, 358-363. doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000080
Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., & Krause, N. (2015). Religion as problem, religion as solution: Religious buffers of the links between religious/spiritual struggles and well-being/mental health. Quality of Life Research, 1-10. doi:10.1007/s11136-015-1163-8
Park, C. L., & Folkman, S. (1997). Meaning in the context of stress and coping. General Review of Psychology, 1, 115-144. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.1.2.115
Park, C. L. (2005). Religion as a meaning-making framework in coping with life stress. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 707-729. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00428.x
Pargament, K. I., Zinnbauer, B. J., Scott, A. B., Butter, E. M., Zerowin, J., & Stanik, P. (1998). Red flags and religious coping: Identifying some religious warning signs among people in crisis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 77-89. doi:10.1002/jclp.10225
Ano, G. G., & Vasconcelles, E. B. (2005). Religious coping and psychological adjustment to stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 461-480. doi:10.1002/jclp.20049
Davis, C. G., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Larson, J. (1998). Making sense of loss and benefiting from the experience: Two construals of meaning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 561-574. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.561
Blum, Alon. (2008). Shame and guilt, misconceptions and controversies: A critical review of the literature. Traumatology, 14, 91-102. doi:10.1177/1534765608321070
Enright, R.D. (1996). Counseling within the forgiveness triad: On forgiving, receiving forgiveness, and self-forgiveness. Counseling and Values, 40, 107-126. doi:10.1002/j.2161-007X.1996.tb00844.x
McCullough, M. E., Bellah, C. G., Kilpatrick, S. D., & Johnson, J. L. (2001). Vengefulness: Relationships with forgiveness, rumination, wellbeing, and the Big Five. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 601-610. doi:10.1177/0146167201275008
Kubany, E. S., & Watson, S. B. (2003). Guilt: Elaboration of a multidimensional model. The Psychological Record, 53, 51-90.
Resick, P. A., Monson, C. M., & Chard, K. M. (2010). Cognitive processing therapy: Veteran/military version. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans' Affairs.
Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change. New York, NY: Guilford.
Hoerster, K. D., Jakupcak, M., Stephenson, K. R., Fickel, J. J., Simons, C. E., Hedeen, A., Dwight-Johnson, M., Whealin, J. M., Edmund, C., & Felker, B. L. (2015). A pilot trial of telephone-based collaborative care management for PTSD among Iraq/Afghanistan war Veterans. Telemedicine and e-Health, 21, 42-47. doi:10.1089/tmj.2013.0337
Witvliet, C. V. O., Phillips, K. A., Feldman, M. E., & Beckham, J. C. (2004). Posttraumatic mental and physical health correlates of forgiveness and religious coping in military Veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 269-273. doi:10.1023/B:JOTS.0000029270.47848.e5
Currier, J.M., Drescher, K., & Harris, J. I. (2014). Spiritual functioning among Veterans seeking residential treatment for PTSD: A matched control group study. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 1, 3-15. doi: 10.1037/scp0000004
Idler, E. L., Musick, M. A., Ellison, C. G., George, L. K., Krause, N., Ory, M. G., Pargament, K. I., Powell, L. H., Underwood, L. G. & Williams, D. R. (2003). Measuring multiple dimensions of religion and spirituality for health research. Research on Aging, 25, 327-365. doi:10.1177/0164027503025004001
Trevino, K. M., & Pargament, K. I. (2007). Religious coping with terrorism and natural disaster. Southern Medical Journal, 100, 946-947. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e3181454660
Reinert, K. G., Campbell, J. C., Bandeen-Roche, K., Lee, J. W., & Szanton, S. (2015). The role of religious involvement in the relationship between early trauma and health outcomes among adult survivors. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 8, 1-11. doi:10.1007/s40653-015-0067-7
Johnstone, B., Bhushan, B., Hanks, R., Yoon, D. P., & Cohen, D. (2015). Factor structure of the brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality in US and Indian samples with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Religion and Health, 55, 1-15. doi:10.1007/s10943-015-0170-y
Brymer, M., Jacobs, A., Pynoos, R., Ruzek, J., Steinberg, A., Vernberg, E., & Watson, P. (2006). Psychological first aid: Field operations guide (2nd ed.). Available from:

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Also see: VA Mental Health